LPAD(x,a,y,n)

LPAD(x,a,y,n) is a string function that inserts the character string y (string literal) at the start of the character string x (string specification) as often as specified by the expression a. Only expressions that supply an alphanumeric value are permitted as string specifications. The result of the expression a must be a positive integer.

Leading and subsequent blanks in the character string x are truncated.

The optional parameter n (unsigned integer) defines the maximal total length of the character string created. n must be greater than or equal to the total LENGTH(x)+a*LENGTH(y).

Result of the LPAD(x,a,y,n) function

LPAD(x,a,y)
x must identify a CHAR or VARCHAR column.

The maximum length of the character string is the length of the character string x.

x or a is the NULL value

NULL value

a is the special NULL value

Error message

SELECT hno, LPAD(' ',TRUNC(price/10),'*',70) graph
FROM room WHERE price > 150 ORDER BY price DESC

Creating bar charts: LPAD inserts asterisks in front of the first parameter (in this case, a blank). This is done according to the number equal to price divided by 10.

HNO

GRAPH

130

**********************************************************************

140

************************************************************

50

**************************************************

60

**************************************************

150

*********************************************

80

****************************************

120

***********************************

90

******************************

130

***************************

10

********************

60

********************

140

********************

150

*******************

50

******************

70

******************

130

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See also:

RPAD(x,a,y,n)